Posted by wpsatuw2 on November 19, 2008
In translating a gerund, one may find difficulty because there is no gerund system in Indonesian. A gerund can be a hybrid. It may have a noun form and a verbal meaning. Contoh surat lamaran The Indonesian language system distinguishes between noun and verb and there is no hybrid. According to Marcella Frank in Modern English Part II, a gerund is defined as a participial form used in noun function (97). According to W. Stannard Allen in Living English Structure, a gerund is defined as the part of a verb that ends in –ing which has the force of a noun as well as that of a verb (177). However there are translating procedures that the translator can use in translating gerund. How To Make A Website
The procedures in translating gerunds are divided into:
- A shift which consists of class shift and unit shift;
- A non shift which consists of non-class shift and omission
In translating a gerund, a translator is given the option to use the shift or non-shift procedure. The translator may choose the non-shift and maintain the form of the gerund, which is a noun. However, if it is not possible or if it makes the translation sound unnatural, the translator may choose the second procedure, which is the shift procedure. The form of the gerund may be changed into a verb or an adjective. The translator must keep in mind that his/her main responsibility is to transfer the meaning or to find a dynamic equivalence. Busby SEO Test
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English Grammar, writers choose gerunds when no abstract noun phrases exist or to express movement and activity in some kind of process. Gerunds have a stronger verbal force than noun clauses, infinitives, or abstract noun phrases. That means they put an emphasis on some kind of action. (322) This shows that the purpose of using a gerund is to emphasize some kind of action that the writer of the SL wants the reader to take special notice. According to Amran Tasai in Cermat Berbahasa Indonesia Untuk Perguruan Tinggi, in Indonesian language, there are five ways to emphasize a word or a phrase.
The first way is putting the word which wants to be emphasized in the beginning Musik indonesia
of the sentence. The example below is in Indonesian Language.
Harapan Presiden ialah agar rakyat membangun bangsa dan negaranya.
The phrase “Harapan Presiden” is emphasized in the sentence above.
The second way is ordering a sequence of word. The example below is in Indonesian Language.
Bukan seratus, seribu, atau sejuta, tetapi berjuta juta rupiah, telah disumbangkan kepada anak-anak terlantar.
The third way is repeating the same word. The example below is in Indonesian Language.
Saya suka akan kecantikan mereka, saya suka akan kelembutan mereka.
The fourth way is contrasting the idea. The example below is in Indonesian Language. Free lyrics
Anak itu tidak malas dan curang, tetapi rajin dan jujur.
The fifth way is using the particle –lah. The example below is in Indonesian Language.
Saudaralah yang bertanggung jawab. (93)
A translator must try to emphasize the same action to make a good translation so that the TL reader will give the same response as the SL reader in reading the text containing gerunds in their own language.
The underlined word below is the gerund and its translation. The italized word indicates the object of the gerund’s translation. Busby Seo Test
A. Gerund as an Object of preposition
According to Betty Azar in Understanding and Using English Grammar, gerund is frequently used as the object of preposition. (151)
1. Class shift
Class shift occurs when an SL item is translated by means of a TL item belonging to a different grammatical class. Class shift procedures in translating a gerund includes adding affixes such as be-, me-, me- -kan, di- and ter-. A translator uses class shift because he/she finds that maintaining a gerund form which is a noun or using affixes such as pe- an, ke-an, ke- and -an is not possible or it may make the translations sounds unnatural. By using the class Canary pet bird
shift, the form of the gerund is mostly change into a verb.
a. Translated into Me-+V (22) Class shift
According to Amalia Candrayani in Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing, as a transitive verb, me- commonly means doing an action (melakukan tindakan) or using something (menggunakan or memakai). As an intransitive verb, the affix me- has the meaning of becoming (menjadi), living as something (hidup sebagai), having a profession of (berprofesi), eating/drinking/sipping something (minum/makan/isap sesuatu), moving to somewhere (menuju/bergerak ke), finding or collecting something (mencari atau mengumpulkan), making something (membuat), pretending or doing a mimic of lowongan cpns
something (berlaku seperti atau menyerupai), and making a noise (mengeluarkan bunyi) (70-72)
1. SL: He was going to ring me again tonight and I was no closer to having sorted it. E-love, 2001, 194
TL: Dia akan meneleponku lagi nanti malam, dan aku belum membuat keputusan. E-love, 2001, 72
The gerund in the sentence above is translated into a transitive verb where the object of the gerund’s translation is keputusan. The affix me- above has the meaning of doing the action of having sorted it (melakukan tindakan membuat)
2. SL: At least I didn’t have hours of travelling to get there and back. E-love, 2001, 139
TL: Setidaknya aku tidak perlu menempuh jarak jauh pulang-pergi. E-love, 2001, 17
The gerund in the sentence above is translated into a transitive verb where the object of the gerund’s translation is jarak jauh. The affix me- above has the meaning of doing the action of traveling (melakukan tindakan menempuh)
3. SL: It didn’t take too long to get home and then we had the fun of opening all Promosi web
the carrier bags of things that Mum had bought. E-love, 2001, 207
TL: Tak lama kemudian kami sampai di rumah, dan asyik membuka kantong-kantong belanjaan Mum. E-love, 2001, 85
The gerund in the sentence above is translated into a transitive verb where the object of the gerund’s translation is kantong belanjaan. The affix me- above has the meaning of doing the action of opening (melakukan tindakan membuka)
The translation of the three sentences above have the same pattern which is the auxiliary verb in Source Language is omitted and the gerund is translated into a desain rumah
verb to replace the auxiliary verb
4. SL: It was so ridiculous that even I started to laugh at the thought of keeping anything a secret from that lot. E-love, 2001, 171
TL: Menggelikan sekali urusan ini, sampai-sampai aku mulai tertawa membayangkan aku menyimpan rahasia dari sobat-sobatku ini. E-love, 2001, 49
The gerund in the sentence above is translated into a transitive verb where the object of the gerund’s translation is rahasia. The affix me- above has the meaning of doing the action of keeping something a secret (melakukan tindakan menyimpan rahasia) Lowongan kerja terbaru