Posted by wpsatuw2 on November 18, 2008
No complaint was made about the judge’s
(60) The house was locked up and there was no answer to
(5) it may form part of compounds in the same way as a substantive:
(64) a walking-stick/ blotting paperchicken recipes
(6) it may have the object of the implied verbal concept attached to it by of:
(65) Mrs 0.’s leaving of her life was as unobtrusive as her
living of it.
(66) The killing of the pig lasted an unconscionable time;
(7) it may be co-ordinate with substantives: resep makanan
(67) Transportation or banging, that’s what he
(68) Travelling and hotel accommodation is always
(8) it may be subject, object, predicative complement, and the complement of a preposition:
(69) Speaking seemed painful to him.
(70) You must give up travelling.
(71) This is playing with fire. Contoh CV
(72) He used to earn coppers by lighting fires for
Orthodox neighbours on the Sabbath. (60)
b. The verbal character of the gerund can be seen from the fact that this form may
(1) be combined with adverbial members:
(73) By scraping and eating skimpily, he spent four
months as a student in New York
(74) Our chance of ever knowing the truth is very slight;
(2) have an object or predicative complement:
(75) After receiving the last sacraments, he died
peacefully at 12.52 a.m.
(76) She was proud of being his daughter.
(3) have a subject:
(77) She got a sense of it being her duty to do something
(78) I hate the idea of my cousin interfering.
be inflected in the perfect and the passive:
(79) There is a possibility of his having arrived by now.
(80) This saved him from being burt. (60 – 61)
4. GERUNDS TIME RELATIONSHIPS TO THE MAIN VERB
Gerund has a time relationship to the main verb. According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, the participial forms used in gerund phrases indicate the same kind of time as they do in participial phrases. The –ing form is neutral with respect to time; the time that is
intended often depends on the tense or the meaning of the main verb. (315)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English Grammar :
a. General Time Form-Gerunds used as objects of the verb express the same time How to make a website
or a time future to the main verb.
Subject verb active gerund object of the gerund
(81) The president considered changing the rules.
(Gerund = object of main verb)
subject verb passive gerund
(82) The president anticipated being elected.
(Action of gerund affects the subject.)
(83) The candidate was last seen being attacked by
the press. (Action of the verb and the gerund affect the subject.) BUSBY SEO TEST
b. General Time Form-Gerunds used as subjects or complements of the verb express the same time or a time earlier than the main verb.
Active gerund subject verb active gerund complement
(84) Seeing is believing. (same time)
subject gerund object verb object
(85) Lowering the interest rates had two effects.
(Action of the gerund is earlier than the main verb.)
passive gerund subject verb passive gerund complement
Being seen meant becoming recognized. (same time) Download Musik indonesia
c. Past Time-Perfect Gerund Form expresses an action, earlier than the main verb.
Subject verb active gerund object of gerund
(87) The president forgot having changed the rules.
(perfect gerund = object of main verb)
subject verb passive: perfect gerund
(88) The candidate ,understood not having been elected as
president. (Action of gerund affects the subject.) (305)
Affixation is very useful in translating gerund. According to Gorys Keraf in Tata Bahasa Rujukan Bahasa Indonesia, there are two kinds of affixes. Lyrics to
a. Inflectional Affix
Inflectional Affix does not change the class of the word after the word is given affixes such as me-, di- and ter-.
b. Derivational Affixes
Derivational affixes changes the class of the word after the word is given affixes such as ke- -an, pe- -an, pe- and -an. (121)
In conclusion, the features and the usage of the gerund help us to identify the gerund or to distinguish between gerund and the other suffix -ing such as present participle and adjective in the process of identifying gerund in the book. According BUSBY SEO TEST
to Knud Schibsbye in A Modern English Grammar with an Appendix on Semantically Related Prepositions, a word with suffix -ing can act as:
1. a substantive (noun or others that functions as a noun)
(89) I gave him my blessing
(90) a street of silent-looking dwellings;
2. a gerund
(91) Banging criminals is no cure.
(92) I am proud of being your wife.
(93) Talking so rudely is provoking.
3. the present participle
(94) A girl smiling her sweetest canaries birds
(95) coming up to me he said, `Good morning’
(96) What are you looking at?
4. an adjective
(97) he is always willing
(98) He is a strapping fellow
(99) He is the cunninger of the two.
5. a preposition
(100) I will communicate with you concerning your friend.
(101) I have an advantageous offer to make him regarding the
cattle . lowongan kerja
(102) Your facts are very valuable, specially as touching (this is
archaic) your own stay in Crete. (57)
In addition to distinguish between gerund and the other suffix -ing, we must remember that the gerunds will always answer the noun question, what? (since they name an action or a fact, they don’t answer to who?).
(103)Your driving a car to New York in your condition disturbs
action: how to make a website
(104) Your driving a car to New York took longer than I expected.
The writer shall doublecheck the gerunds by testing other nouns or pronouns in its place. Then in the analysis, the writer will divide the gerunds based on the function of the gerund. According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, gerund has several functions: subject of verb, object of verb, object of preposition (In prepositional object or in adverbial phrase), subjective complement, and appositive.
Meanwhile, Randolph Quirk in A Comprehensive Grammar of The English Language refers the gerund as the verb of nominal -ing clauses (or more fully, Promosi website
nominal -ing participle clauses) and sometimes are called gerundive which has a function as:
(105) Watching television keeps them out of mischief.
2. direct object:
(106) He enjoys playing practical jokes.
3. subject complement:
(107) Her first job had been selling computers.
(108) His current research, investigating attitudes to racial stereotypes, takes up most of his time.
5. adjectival complementation:
(109) They are busy preparing a barbecue.
6. prepositional complement :
(110) I’m responsible for drawing up the budget. (1063)
The difference between the two is that most of the terms that Marcella Frank and Randolph Quirk uses are different which can be seen from the table.
Table 1 Different term used by Marcella Frank and Randolph Quirk Lowongan kerja