Lowongan kerja dan resep masakan

Info lowongan kerja dan resep masakan

function as prepositional

Posted by wpsatuw2 on November 18, 2008

function as prepositional objects of verbs. A great many of the verbs listed under prepositional objects in the chapter on preposi­tions take such gerund objects.

(1) He insisted on paying the entire bill for dinner.

(2) She often dreams about having a lot of money to spend on luxuries.

The word “to” after the following verbs is a preposition rather than the sign of the infinitive and therefore requires a gerund after it: accustom oneself, allude, confess, confine oneself, dedicate oneself, limit oneself, look forward, object, plead guilty, reconcile oneself, resign oneself, resort, and revert. cake recipes

(3) He objected to their entering the factory without permission.

(4) We look forward to seeing you again. (324-325)

(2) Adjectival Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases

According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, these adjectival constructions appearing after nouns begin mostly with of or for. There are two main types:

a. Those prepositional gerund phrases that follow nouns derived from verbs or adjectives. resep makanan

(5) His pretense of being rich didn’t fool anyone.

(6) Their preparations for traveling abroad were very time-consuming.

(7) He spoke of the necessity of hiring more men.

b. Those prepositional gerund phrases appearing after nouns that are non- derivational. Such adjectival constructions are mostly adjective clause equivalents. These phrases are sometimes interpreted as appositives to the nouns that precede them. surat lamaran kerja

(8) The money for traveling around the country (= with which they could travel around the country) was soon used up.

(9) This is not a good way of doing it (=in which you can do it).

(10) The time for making excuses (=in which you can make excuses) is past.

Both types of prepositional gerund phrases may have alternate infinitive forms.

(11) He spoke of the necessity to hire more men.

This is not a good way to do it. How to build a website


(13) The time to make excuses is past.

(3) Adverbial Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases


These phrases may express almost all adverbial relationships except place.

(14) After listening to the news, she started to prepare dinner.

(15) He earned the money for his tuition by working as a waiter during the summer months.

(16) I passed him in the street without his recognizing me.

In spite of traveling alone, she enjoyed her vacation busby seo test


very much.

A prepositional gerund phrase may appear in all three adverbial positions, but most frequently in initial or final position. In initial position the “subject” of the phrase is rarely expressed, since it is understood as the subject of the sentence. If the agent of an ‘introductory gerund’ phrase is other than the subject of the sentence, the phrase is considered an unacceptable “dangling” element-

(18) On looking out the window, a beautiful scene met

his eyes.


According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, at introduces most prepositional gerund phrases after adjectives, especially -ed participial adjectives.

He was embarrassed at hearing himself praised.

I’m disappointed at your doing such a thing. He’s very quick at adding figures.

Other prepositions introducing gerund phrases after adjectives are:


(19) He’s very careless about keeping appointments.

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(20) Their funds are adequate for meeting their moderate



(21) He’s afraid of displeasing his parents.


(22) They must be content with seeing each other at infrequent



(23) I was annoyed by the dog’s barking all night.

(This prepositional gerund phrase may also be interpreted as a modifier of the passive verb busby seo test

be annoyed.) (326)

2. The Usage of Gerund

There are some verbs that follow gerunds. According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English Grammar, we often use gerunds after:

a. Factive verbs (express something that really happened):
admit, appreciate, finish, legalize, miss, regret, stop

b. Two-word verbs: insist on, consist of (311)

According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English Grammar, the following infinitives and gerund patterns are arranged in order of the most common to the least common.* Canary feeding

Pattern 1 subject verb infinitive object

(51) The upper-middle class aspired to join upper-class prestige


Pattern 2

subject verb direct object infinitive

(52) People have used power and wealth to maintain their

position. (subject of infinitive)

Pattern 3

subject verb gerund object

The second step involves making sure no major changes are lowongan pns



Pattern 4

subject verb possessive gerund object

(54) We resent their social typing of

(object of gerund)


Note that noun clauses (“that” clauses) are used more than infinitives and gerunds. They occur 46 percent of the time.

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Knowledge of sentence patterns can help a writer determine the choice of a gerund or infinitive object. Although noun clauses and infinitive objects are used most of the time, you will see gerunds used in your academic reading assign­ments from time to time. (309)


Gerund has some features. According to Knud Schibsbye in A Modern English Grammar with an Appendix on Semantically Related Prepositions, the forms of the seo indonesia

gerund have both substantival and verbal features; both aspects of the content are often apparent in the same context.

a. The gerund’s substantival features are as follows:

(1) it may have a plural -s:

(55) Judge Jeffreys watches the hangings of those he has


(2) it may have a genitive -s:

(56) We are walking for walking‘s sake.

(3) it may be provided with articles:

There was a gentle tapping on the door. Lowongan kerja Desember


(58) The cream of the batting had already been skimmed

on Saturday.

(4) it may be combined with words in the attributive-adjectival function:

(59) There was much coming and going between

the em­bassies.

(60) He infuses the story with a warm spontaneous power

that prevents its being obvious.

(61) The best grouping of canvases is put in the front

of the store.


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